Monday, March 23, 2009

IO WATCH: Structure and Operations

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"The Capacity Study is finished .

We have diagnosed the [sickness of the UN development system of technical co-operation] and written a prescription. .

. Governments created this machine - which [has become] probably the most complex organization in the world.  . Briefly, it is built up of the administrative structures of the United Nations and its component parts, . and of about a dozen Specialized Agencies.  In theory, it is under the control of about thirty separate governing bodies . At the headquarters level, there is . no central co-ordinating organization [to exercise effective control] . [and there is also] an extraordinary complex of regional and sub-regional offices, and …. field offices in over ninety developing countries.  . Who controls this 'machine'?  So far the evidence shows that governments do not, and also that the machine is incapable of intelligently controlling itself.  This is not because it lacks intelligent and capable officials, but because it it is so organized that managerial direction is impossible.  In other words, the machine as a whole has become unmanageable in the strictest sense of the word.  As a result, it is becoming slower and more unwieldy, like some prehistoric monster."

A study of the capacity of the United Nations development system, 2 vols., DP/5, United Nations, Geneva, 1969, Vol. 1, pp. i-iii. 

[Note: also known as "the Jackson report" after its principal author, or as "the Capacity Study."]




"Global problems do not respect national frontiers . No single government can put these things right on its own.  Who can?  Call in the United Nations.

That is the theory.  [The UN charter seeks] . to make the world not just a more peaceful place but a nicer one.  Since then a vast and unwieldy network of specialized agencies has grown up in part to put these noble aims into practice. There are now more than 40 such agencies . They employ over 50,000 professionals in 620 duty stations around the world.  Not even the UN secretariat in New York knows how much the whole thing costs.  Most estimates start at around $6 billion a year.  The world seems to be getting poor value for it. ."

"The United Nations agencies: A case for emergency treatment", The EconomistDecember 2, 1989, pp. 27-28, 30 [27].

[Note: the article offered a set of sensible suggestions for improvement as of 1989.  At present, most if not almost all still seem to have been ignored.]



"The explanation for the endless growth of [UN] programmes and projects lies in the bureaucratic culture .… which is peculiar to the nature of the institution. Populated on the one hand by idealists who believe everything they do is valuable, and on the other hand by time servers who are there to get what they can, the UN has degenerated into a place where symbolism is reality, where people believe that saying something can make it true, where discussing a problem is thought to amount to solving it."

Anne Applebaum, "Is the UN really necessary?", The Spectator (UK),31 July 1993.

[Note: Ms. Applebaum, is also the author of, inter alia, a very well-received recent new book, Gulag: A history, Doubleday, New York, 2003.]




"Challenges that must be globally managed keep popping up: genetic engineering, AIDS, and global terrorist networks.   Yet … the global landscape has dramatically changed in the last 50 years, but the institutions serving the world have not.

The array of institutions is bewildering.  Within the U. N. system alone, there are 112 agencies.  More than 20 agencies deal with water, for example. ….

Functions overlap, mandates conflict, and each agency has its own standard of accountability, [or unaccountability] to member governments.  ….

The institutions cannot reform themselves.  Two generations of institutional contamination and tenured self-interest ensure that this deadlock continues.  But this lack of coherence damages their collective credibility, frustrates their donors and owners, and gives rise to public cynicism.  There is a consensus that something must be done, but no consensus on how to go about it.'

Mike Moore, "Multilateral meltdown", Foreign PolicyMarch/April 2003, p. 75.

[Note: Mr. Moore was Director General of the World Trade Organization from 1999 to 2002 and is a former Prime Minister of New Zealand.  He is the author of A world without walls: Freedom, development, free trade, and global governance, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 2003.]







Chronological quotes





 the question remains: how in practice to revitalize a flagging organization which is somehow out of tune with the needs and moods of the times?   I believe that a shock treatment is called for and the present moment provides an unique opportunity to apply that treatment  I have come to the conclusion that the only practical way to revitalize the organization is through a major consolidation and regrouping.  This must be no mere cosmetic surgery.  It would require some drastic staff reduction -- up to 50 percent in some areas -- and a major redeployment of UN resources in those tasks in which it can be most useful to its members and the world community."

Maurice Strong, then the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, in UN document A/C.5/SR 1433, 9 November 1971, as quoted in Shirley Hazard, Defeat of an ideal: A study of the self-destruction of the United Nations, Macmillan, London, 1973, pp. 112-113.




"Experience indicates that the powers of senior [UN] officials have grown, as the central powers of the Secretary-General have been eroded.  A senior official, who is supported by either a great power or an influential group of countries …, enjoys very considerable authority.  Customs, procedures, and political factors have limited in practice the ability of the Secretary-General to impose his will on a recalcitrant senior official.  Indeed, he is often compelled to negotiate with senior officials proposed changes of jurisdiction, or proposed transfers.

It should [also] be emphasized that the director (D-2) posts are the most influential executive posts in the Secretariat as regards daily operational functions. We have already noted that many such posts change hands only between nationals of the same country, the same region, and some times the same group of countries. This practice of establishing de facto national or regional preserves in the Secretariat cannot help but have a marked adverse impact…"

Theodor Meron, The United Nations Secretariat: The Rules and the Practice, Chapter  5, "Erosion of the power of the Secretary-General: The new barons and national preserves",  D.C. Heath, Lexington, Mass., 1977, pp. 91,99.      

[Note: Mr. Meron is a former delegate to the UN, international law professor at New York University, and currently serves as president of the UN tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.]




"I have been intrigued …. by the question of who is in charge at the UN; who sets the standards and values of the Organization?  Who says what the UN is, what it does, what it cannot do?  ….

Events …. indicate [that there is no] monolithic power structure at the UN.  …. The Secretary-General …. is constrained by the political clout of his closest collaborators, particularly the Department Heads. ….  further complicated by [growing exercise by the] Fifth Committee and General Assembly of managerial responsibility because [they are unable to ensure] that managers in fact do [their jobs.]  In an environment of shifting power relationships, where it is increasingly difficult to fix responsibility, it is important that staff have a strong voice,  lest it be forgotten by those whose only interest is self-interest.

 …. policy derives from an accretion of small decisions and actions up and down the management line.  ….  There is no thread of coherence running through the whole.  At any given time, a special assistant …. may be as important in establishing values and policies as is … the Secretary-General himself.  Such people define the Organization through our failure to do so, through our acquiescence."  

Lowell Flanders, "The future of the UN …. In whose hands?", address [by the President of the Staff Union] at a preparatory meeting of the United Nations Community Forum,  Secretariat News (NY), April 16, 1979, p. 10.                                                                               



"In the 13 years that I have been with DTCD, formerly OTC, formerly BTAO, formerly etc., we have been reassessed, redefined, reoriented, readjusted, rearranged, reordered, reduced and, of course, reorganized.  We've been aligned and realigned, maligned, streamlined and asinined.  All in the name of progress and increased efficiency.  It seems to be the curse of bureaucracy that every new situation is met by reorganization. …

There comes a time, however, when you wonder if the people responsible for all this needless turmoil will ever be held accountable. …

Where's accountability in the United Nations?  Who takes responsibility? Where does the buck stop?  … at the UN it does not seem to matter how severe the financial mismanagement or how erratic and bungling the reorganizations  --  no one in management either at the Departmental or central level is held accountable.

Perhaps the most cruel and bitter irony in this entire masquerade is that in October 1984 the Fifth Committee approved $86 million to build lavish new conference facilities in Addis Ababa.  This in the face of overwhelming human misery and starvation. 

  Where's the accountability?"

 Lowell Flanders, "A.D. 65", Secretariat News (New York),December 1984, pp. 10-11.




"Mr. Pérez de Cuéllar summed up his 10 years … as 'a most productive decade.'  The UN had … 'moved from the periphery to near the centre of international relations'.

'… a slow but meticulous process of institutional self-analysis, combined with efforts to 'streamline' the Secretariat, had resulted in a rejuvenated UN,' he stated.

Activity, not argument, had thus answered … questions about the UN that had 'troubled the public through much of its existence' … he continued.  … 'The effectiveness of the United Nations can no longer be in doubt.'"

"Goodbye to Pérez de Cuéllar: A 'most productive decade at the UN,"UN ChronicleMarch 1992, pp. 6-8. [see next item of the same date from the same publication.]


"With a new Secretary-General, reform of the United Nations is in the air at … [UN] Headquarters. 

Since September, intensive discussions have taken place on reforming the work and structure of the world body.  Under scrutiny was a plan worked out by 22 industrial and developing countries, including the five permanent Security Council members, intended to strengthen the Secretariat and increase the Secretary-General's authority.

The new plan disapproves of … the Organization's 'top-heavy' administration, under which 30 to 40 high-ranking officials report directly to the Secretary General. That structure grew over the years in a series of 'ad hoc responses to specific problems.' 

The plan speaks of 'a widespread consensus' that the UN must be restructured …"

"Reform proposals circulate during 46th Assembly: UN faces 'dangerously precarious' financial situation,'  UN ChronicleMarch 1992, pp. 9-10.

                                    [see preceding item of the same date from the same publication.]




"… When you cross the railway tracks  that divide the international quarter from the rest of Geneva, you leave behind the banks and watches for an equally unreal world of plate-glass-and-marble buildings, international hotels, and unrealizable goals. 

When they are not publishing documents, [the many UN system agencies in Geneva] are competing, mostly with one another.   .… 

 … if [some topic] is in fashion, everyone wants a part of it. …  Looking up 'women' -- women in work (ILO), women in health (WHO), women refugees (UNHCR), women and rural agriculture (FAO), women and human rights (Human Rights Commission), women in Europe [ECE]  -- in a cross-section of budgets produces [this sort of] overlap.  So does 'environment' and so does 'population control.'

Often these fashions are provoked by conferences, like the recent population conference in Cairo …  One shudders to think of what will follow after  the "Social Summit" in March 1995 … 

Still, the collecting of statistics provides the most fertile ground for overlap of all.  … If, in the field, UN agencies … and others do sometimes work very well, in Geneva they are metaphorically stumbling over one another's calculators. …" 

Anne Applebaum, "An anarchy of abounding acronyms", The Spectator (UK), 12 November 1994, pp. 9-11.




"Somewhere  … I once read an article listing '25 ways to tell that a company is about to go bankrupt.'  Along with the building of a new corporate headquarters, I seem to remember that … large, expensive, self-congratulatory social functions …. were considered one of the surest signs of impending collapse.  It that is so, the United Nation's 50th anniversary celebrations are worth a closer look.

Secretary-General Butros Butros-Ghali said that [despite new challenges] the UN has not been given the resources required.

Unfortunately, [he] was only half right in his analysis of the UN's financial predicament.  …. While it is true that the UN is approaching bankruptcy, …. What the UN needs is to stop frittering its resources on programmes and departments that are unnecessary, unimportant, and extravagantly wasteful.

If the 166 world leaders …. gathered in New York this week want to see [the UN] last another 50 years, perhaps they should stop preening for the cameras and … return to the UN's core business and put an end to 50 years of wasteful diversification."

Anne Applebaum, "What a waste  -- and not just the birthday party",The Spectator (UK), October 24, 1995.




"Although the United Nations is essentially an enormous information processing and sharing machine, it … almost never addresses frontally …. the quality of [its] data, the value added … and  the cost-effectiveness ….

A report on ['Restructuring and revitalization …. ' (A-50-697) hides] these key questions  under layers of esoteric bureaucratese. … A section entitled 'Documentation' [says] 'the documentation crisis in the United Nations is not a new phenomenon. … despite repeated analyses and discussions, the crisis continues and indeed, may have grown more acute.  It seriously impacts the ability of intergovernmental bodies to perform their mandated functions … Although member states have complained insistently, … the Secretariat [also] can have no interest in bringing out a document long after the due date. ….

'The roots of the documentation crisis are systemic.  … Without a cultural change in the way business is done in the economic, social, and related sectors, where the tendency has been to increase the number of bodies as well as the frequency with which they meet, it is unlikely that the documentation crisis will abate.'"

"UN economic & social sector reform ignores critical issues of information flow and use", International Documents Review (New York), November 27, 1995, pp. 4-5.




"This volume's point of departure was an overextended United Nations devolving responsibilities toward regional arrangements for security functions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for the delivery of many services. ….. in a world with limited resources and more than enough challenges, a better international division of labour was essential.  Rather than bleating, as a die-hard member of the UN fan club might, about the inability of the world organization to perform, it seemed more reasonable and practical to examine the dynamics of what could well be enhanced global governance.  Within this context, it makes more sense to ask who does what best, or at least better, than to lament the disappearance of a mythical UN system powerful and well-equipped enough  to undertake every task. ….

The United Nations, regional security arrangements and service-providing NGOs have made a difference.  It is time to move beyond simplistic notions of UN 'subcontracting'  in the direction of hard-headed task-sharing and a better international division of labour.  This would benefit donors and recipients, institutions and peoples."

Edwin W. Smith, and Thomas G., Weiss, "UN task-sharing: Toward or away from global governance", in Thomas G. Weiss, ed., Beyond UN subcontracting: Task-sharing with regional security arrangements and service-providing NGOs, St. Martins, New York, 1998, pp. 227-255 [227, 255].      




"… agency leaders face many obstacles to improving the way agencies work together. 

[About 30 WTO members who cannot afford a mission In Geneva suggested a modest trust fund to pay for them to come for a "Geneva week" of briefings every year.]  I set about to raise that trust fund  and, foolishly contacted other agencies for donations. 

All hell broke loose.  All the agencies wanted credit for filling this gap in institutional governance.  As a consequence, agencies and countries now compete to host once neglected groups of countries, at a cost of millions of dollars.  The issue never seems to be about serving countries or customers; the real question is whether a program increases an agency's influence."

Mike Moore, "Multilateral meltdown", Foreign PolicyMarch/April 2003, p. 75.

[Note: Mr. Moore was the Director General of the World Trade Organization from 1999 to 2002 and is a former Prime Minister of New Zealand.  He is the author of A world without walls: Freedom,development, free trade, and global governance, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 2003. ]





"The check is not in the mail but a U.N. official lobbied President Bush for a $1 billion interest-free loan so the United Nations could renovate its crumbling headquarters that marks the Manhattan skyline. ….

Completed in 1952, the distinctive glass skyscraper has water dripping through its roof, toxic  asbestos lining the ceiling tiles, no sprinklers in case of fire and erratic heating and cooling systems. ….

The new plan calls for building a 30-story office tower in a nearby park that would house staff during the renovation and then become a permanent home for U.N. agencies now renting space in other buildings.

An interest-free loan would enable the 191 nations in the world body to finance the project over 25 to 30 years …."

Evelyn Leopold, " UN lobbies for $1 billion loan to fix glass tower", Reuters, July 14, 2003.

[Note: the UN physical infrastructure is also troubled, but it is worth noting that this major project seeks to double the size of UN headquarters as two skyscrapers, even as the UN complains of its many severe staffing cuts of the past decade]



"European leaders took their turn around a giant oval table, with each president or prime minister given four minutes to offer a position on the contentious draft of Europe's future constitution.

This 'tour de table' …. was a landmark event for the European Union ….

But the meeting …. exposed the enormous challenges facing the EU as it prepares to expand to a union of 25 countries representing 450 million people. ….

Officials complained that they had wasted time listening to prepared speeches that stated positions everyone already knew.

'There is a problem of methodology' said a foreign minister …. 'If everyone takes his turn repeating their positions it can take a very long time.'  The minister …. called it a 'heavy' process.

The meeting Saturday appeared to confirm some analysts' fears that decision-making and spontaneous debate are unwieldy or impossible when 25 leaders sit around a table."

Thomas Fuller, "The growing EU problem: 25 leaders and 25 opinions: Rome talks highlight issue of 'methodology'", International Herald TribuneOctober 6, 2003.

[Note: This new EU is not such a 'heavy' process at all when compared with the UN, which has almost eight times as many members (currently 191), and has been calmly engaging in such rituals in its dozens or hundreds of  governing and subsidiary bodies for a mind-numbing six decades.




"Payments to the U.N. regular budget for 2003

The following 11 Member States have paid their regular budget assessments in full in advance. [list provided …]

The following 29 Member states have paid their regular budget assessments in full by 31 January 2003, the end of the 30 day due period specified in Financial Regulation 3.4 [list provided ...]

As of 21 October 2003, 75 additional Member States have paid their 2003 assessment in full after the 31 January 2003 deadline  [list provided]."

"Honor Roll 2003", United Nations, / , October 23, 2003. 

[Note: this status report shows that although the United States is consistently identified as a UN dues-paying "deadbeat", 76 other Member States, of the 191 total,  also had that dubious distinction on this date.  The detailed listings showed that Canada was the biggest "on time, in full" paid-up country, with its assessment of $34,536,208, while many other payees who paid only pay the minimum annual assessment of $13,502.  Actually, one non-Member State, the Holy See, got off most easily --  its annual assessment is $3,412.]



"President George W. Bush's turn to the United Nations for help in Iraq was a welcome, if belated, recognition that global policing can acquire legitimacy only through multinational endorsement.  But the record of the major political bodies of the UN …. has little to show that this is the place to find that sort of legitimacy in the 21st century.

The [General] Assembly is usually mired in speechmaking.  The [Security[ Council is increasingly perceived as a relic of the cold war.  These are not just the sentiments of neo-conservatives in Washington; they were voiced most recently by Kofi Annan, the secretary general of the United Nations.  In an unusually candid report issued on Sept. 8, Annan challenged the UN to make radical reforms. ….

The real task is to open a serious debate on what a multilateral institution should be today, and what rules and instruments it should have.  As the world's leaders arrive for the General Assembly this week, they would do well to present some concrete ideas on what the United Nations should be.  Then, before leaving, they should charge a council of eminent people to work with Annan to remake it."

"Restructuring the UN", International Herald TribuneSeptember 22, 2003.




"Each year on Sept. 26, [the European Union and the Council of Europe observe a Day of Languages as part of a 1991 policy] …. 'to celebrate the linguistic and cultural diversity of Europe.'  What remains is a current festival of pompousness, misunderstanding and misrepresentation.

The variety of [European languages] …. surely is a wealth, but it is also a burden.  …. [It impedes] the emergence of a European public sphere where political and cultural debate can be carried on beyond borders. …. 

The EU language propaganda …. presses young Europeans to learn languages, from infancy and for life, as many as possible. ….

 In fact, the policy of the EU institutions strengthens a single language: English. ….

If the Union wants to counteract [this monopoly, it could consider] ….  giving priority to two or three other languages. ….

Such realism in any case is to be preferred to the hypocrisy with which the EU and the Council now put young people on the wrong learning track.  As long as they lack the political courage, the Union and the Council of Europe would do better to remain silent, in all languages of Europe."

Abram de Swaan, "Day of languages: Celebrating many tongues",International Herald TribuneSeptember 25, 2003.

[Note: this reasoning also applies quite well to the UN, first as it insists on extensive courses to train its staff in third, fourth, or fifth languages which they rarely use, and second in publishing its main documents in vast quantities in six languages (beyond the official "working languages",  English and French) although, as noted elsewhere, they usually go unread  --  in both instances imposing significant extra UN operating costs.]




"Saying the failure to deliver AIDS drugs to impoverished people is so grave that it has become a global health emergency, the World Health Organization [WHO] is beginning an ambitious plan to provide such drugs to three million people by the end of 2005.

The new plan comes two months after [Dr. Jong Wook] Lee became director general of [WHO], which was criticized for its slow response to the early stages of the AIDS epidemic.  After inner turmoil …. the UN created a new agency, UNAIDS …. to coordinate a global effort.

[WHO] had seldom functioned actively …. until [it] coordinated the response to the SARS epidemic and declared it a global health emergency.

That experience taught WHO the importance of acting quickly and that 'we must change the way we think and change the way we act.' Lee said.

'Business as usual will not work' in the AIDS pandemic, he said.

As Lee shifts the agency into high gear, he has given the [AIDS treatment program] until December to develop standardized guidelines.  'We hope to be working in all 24 countries by Dec. 1", Kim said." 

Lawrence K. Altman, "UN plans big  push on AIDS drugs: Health agency seeks to reach 3 million people by 2005", INew York Times,September 22, 2003.

[Note: WHO, which seems recently to be the best performer among all UN system agencies, is now emphasizing "rapid response", a systematic implementation plan, and coordinated global coverage in several key areas.  If only the UN, and particularly the Security Council and General Assembly, could develop some similar sense of coordinated and targeted operational urgency as well.]  







Useful sources

(Noteinformally assembled by IO Watch, roughly ranked from "most useful" on down, and subject to change as new sources are added) 

Righter, Rosemary, Utopia lost: The United Nations and world order, Twentieth Century Fund, New York, 1995.                   

Gordenker, Leon, The UN tangle: policy formation, reform, and reorganization, WPF Reports number 12, The World Peace Foundation, Cambridge, Mass (USA), 1996.    

Elmandjra, Mahdi, The United Nations System: An analysis, Faber and Faber, London, 1973.


Weiss, Thomas G., ed., Beyond UN subcontracting: Task-sharing with regional security arrangements and service-providing NGOs, St. Martins, New York, 1998.                            

Childers, Erskine, and Urquhart, Brian, "Toward a more effective United Nations",Development Dialogue, 1991:1-2, Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden, 1991.                      


Applebaum, Anne, "Is the UN really necessary?", 31 July 1993, and "An anarchy of abounding acronyms", 12 November 1994, pp. 9-11, both in  The Spectator (UK).


Fomerand, Jaques, "Recent UN textbooks: Suggestions from an old-fashioned practitioner",Global Governance, 83(2002), 383-403.                                                

Kaufmann, Johan, "Developments in decision making in the United Nations", in Harrod, Jeffrey, and Schrijver, Nico, eds., The UN under attack, Institute of Social Studies, the Hague, Gower, Aldershot, England, 1988, pp. 17-32.                              


Moore, Mike, "Multilateral meltdown: It's time for another walk in the Bretton Woods",Foreign Policy, March/April 2003, pp. 74-75.                              


Spiers, Ronald I., "Reforming the United Nations," in Roger A. Coate, ed., U.S. policy and the future of the United Nations, Twentieth Century Fund, New York, 1994.


A new United Nations structure for global economic cooperation: Report of the Group of experts on the structure of the United Nations system, United Nations, E/AC.62/9, New York, 1975.                            


United Nations, Report of the Group of High-Level Intergovernmental Experts to Review the Efficiency of the Administrative and Financial Functioning of the United Nations, A/41/49, 1986.                                                                                                                      

Galtung, Johan, Ch. 1, "On the anthropology of the United Nations System", in Pitt, David and Thomas G. Weiss, eds., The nature of United Nations Bureaucracies, Croon Helm, London & Sydney, 1986, pp. 1-22.                       


Hill, Martin, The United Nations system: Coordinating its economic and social work, under the auspices of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, Cambridge University, London, 1978.


Joint Inspection Unit, "Extrabudgetary resources of the United Nations", UN document A/45/797, 1990.


 Summary Brochure, findings and recommendations, Crisis and Reform in United Nations financing, Global Policy Project on U.N. Funding, United Nations Association of the United States (UNA-USA),              1997.                                                                                                     

Bailey, Sydney D., Ch. 5, "The United Nations Secretariat", in 
Luard, Evan, ed., The evolution of international organizations, Thames and Hudson, London, 1966, pp. 92-103.                 


Meron, Theodor, Ch. 7, "The view from Geneva," in The United Nations Secretariat: The rules and the practice, Lexington Books, D.C. Heath, Lexington, MA and Toronto, 1977, pp.133-140.     


Mendez, Ruben P., "Financing the United Nations and the international public sector: Problems and reform", Global Governance 3(1997), 283-310.  


Barnett, Michael N., and Finnemore, Martha, "The politics, power, and pathologies of international organizations", International Organization, vol. 53, no. 4, Autumn 1999, pp. 699-732.


Patrick, Stewart, "The check is in the mail: Improving the delivery and coordination of post conflict assistance", Global Governance 6(2000), 61-94.      

United Nations, "Budgetary and financial situation of organizations of the United Nations system", A/57/65 of 25 July 2002.                      


Resources on the UN and UN finance, at


United Nations Management and Decision-Making Project UNA-USA, The U.N. in profile: How its resources are distributed, by Maurice Bertrand, United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, 1986.                                                            


United Nations Management and Decision-Making Project UNA-USA, Fairness and accountability in U.N. financial decision-making, by Frederick K. Lister, United Nations Association of the United States of America, New York, 1986.                                            

Chayes, Antonia Handler, Chayes, Abram, and Raach, George, "Beyond reform: Restructuring for more effective conflict intervention", Global Governance, 3(1997), 117-145.                                  

Bozeman, Barry, and Kingsley, Gordon, "Risk culture in public and private organizations",Public Administration Review, March/April 1998, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 109-118.

Bertrand, Maurice, "A critical analysis of the efficiency of the United Nations system", in Dicke, Klaus, and Hüfner, Klaus, eds., Die Leistungsfähigkeit des UN-Systems: Politische Kritik und wissenschaftliche Analyse, Deutsched Gesellschaft für die Vereinten Nationen, UN-Texte 37, UNO-Verlag, Bonn, Germany, 1987, pp. 64-71.


Dicke, Klaus, and Hüfner, Klaus, eds., Die Leistungsfähigkeit des UN-Systems: Politische Kritik und wissenschaftliche Analyse, Deutsche Gesellschaft für die Vereinten Nationen, UN-Texte 37, UNO-Verlag, Bonn, Germany, 1987.

[Note: A collection of articles, and a bibliography and items on UN efficiency, financial crisis, and reform processes in German or English, pp. 130-132.]

Willetts, Peter, "From 'consultative arrangements' to 'partnership': The changing status of NGOs in diplomacy at the UN", Global Governance 6 (2000), 191-212.                                                                         

Ruggie, John Gerald, "The United Nations and globalization: Patterns and limits of institutional adaptation", Global Governance 9 (2003), 301-321.                                    

Brown, Lester R., World without borders, Vintage, New York, August 1973.

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